In the 19th century and earlier decades of the 20th, large houses and estates employed servants.  Many of them stayed in service with the same families for decades.  But recently I have found the relationship between employer and servant extended to the grave.  Alexander Kirkpatrick (1817-1887)  was a wealthy Glasgow wine and spirit merchant with a large house in Hamilton called Allanshaw.

He is buried in Hamilton in Bent Cemetery alongside his wife Elizabeth Bryce (1818-1890), her sister Ellen Bryce (1823-1895) and his wife’s niece Elizabeth Jones (c.1842-1929).  It is common to find members of a family buried in the same grave, but also noted on the gravestone are two female servants ‘ Kythe Watson – housemaid for 50 years, Jane Baird – lady’s maid for over 50 years .’  In the 1881 Census Kythe Watson is a House Keeper in Allanshaw House, born in 1843 in Gairloch; she is still there in 1891 and in 1901 when Allanshaw is the home of  one of Alexanders relations , the Reverend Thomas M B Paterson.  Jane Baird is slightly more elusive, she is a lady’s maid to the Kirkpatrick family in 1871, when they are living in Logie.  She was born in Falkirk in 1885 but does not appear in the household in later census.  However, she maintains a close connection to the family for in 1881 she is a nurse in the household of Alexander Kirkpatrick’s married daughter, Ellen Bryce Kirkpatrick.

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James McNair 1746-1778

James McNair was born in Campbeltown in 1746, like many Scots at that period he left for America.  It is likely that other members of his extended family had moved to America during the 18th century and probably earlier.

He  died fighting on the American side in the Battle of Monmouth, NJ on 28th June, 1778. It was a battle fought at the height of summer in very hot weather and many casualties were killed by the heat.  It is remembered in association with the story of Molly Pitcher, the wife of solder who carried water around the battle field (hence her nickname) and took over from her husband as a canon firer when he collapsed from heat or injury.  James McNair died a gruesome death, he was decapitated by a cannon ball.  His nephew (or half nephew) John Smith, who emigrated to Willow Creek, Illinois wrote
“Tears like the morning dew should fall on the memory of the
heroes. At the battle of Monmouth, on the 25th of June last, fell Lieu-
tenant McNair of the artillery, an officer who deserves the tears of his
country. Born in North Britain, he came to America, and early embarked
in the cause against the tyrant. He served as a private in the first cam-
paign at Boston, and afterwards rose through the intermediate offices
from a private to a lieutenant without the least solicitation to obtain that
promotion and without the interest of one friend but what his merit
gave him. His captain, in a letter from the camp at White Plains, writes
as follows : ‘I cannot help lamenting of the death of so valuable an offi-
cer. He was cool, attentive to his duty, intrepid and brave, undisturbed
in the hottest engagements, and commanded with the firmness and courage
of a Roman. He was loved and esteemed by his officers, and loved and
feared by his soldiers. He had a warm sense of duty to God and lived
regularly and religiously. He was humane and extremely charitable. He
was humble in spirit, modest in manner, and steady in his conduct. He
possessed the highest sense of liberty and wished to establish the inde-
pendency of his country. He dies fighting bravely against slavery and
tyranny. Not less than a cannon ball separated his noble soul from his
body. It may be said of Britain what Solomon said of Sin : ‘Many has
she cast down wounded ; many strong men hath been slain by her.'”

These remarks were quoted by a descendent, David Smith in a pamphlet of recollections of his family published in 1915.

James McNair was known to  George Washington,who wrote on 17th August 1777 in a letter to the Maryland Delegates ‘I was just now informed that  Lt. McNair of the Artillery  has been arrested and stand over to the next Court to be held for Harford County for enlisting two men to serve in one of the Continental Regiments of Artillery.’  (The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript, Vol. 9).

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James Knapton Thompson : a civil engineer in the spirit realm.

James Knapton Thompson was born around 1850 in Yorkshire.  By profession he was a Civil Engineer and he  held a number of Patients in his professional field.  It was one of these that led him to be prosecuted and found guilty of the defamatory libel of Henry Leggott in 1892.  He appears to have believed that Leggott had stolen a part of one his patents on smoke-free stoves.  Thompson had written a number of letters, including a diatribe to The Lancet asserting  that his patient had been breached.  The editor of The Lancet noted  in 1892 ‘We have received a very lengthy communication from Mr. J. Knapton Thompson, C.E., of Leeds, claiming that a portion of the construction of Leggott and Marsh’s patent fire-range violates an invention and patent of Mr. J. Knapton Thompson.’

In 1876 he had published a pamphlet Decimal Acreage … Shewing … the comparative and relative value in statute measure of any decimal part of an acre.  However, in a letter to The Teesdale Mercury dated 3 January 1877 L. Railton writes that the pamphlet had been written by himself and W.H. Boynes some time earlier.  The letter implies that Thompson had plagiarised their work and published it as his own.

However, it is in a totally different area of activity that Thompson became deeply involved.  Spiritualism was very popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and mediums were common.  Many of these were consciously fraudulent.  In 1907 E. Katherine Bates published Seen and Unseen, a book about her experiences in the psychic world, including details of some séances she had attended in New York.  At a séance held by the medium Mrs Stoddart Gray she recounts

‘During this visit to America I also came across a Mr Knapton Thompson, a hard-headed Yorkshire man, who had invented a new kind of smokeless combustion stove, which must have been a good one, for our shrewd American cousins were employing him to put up these stoves in several public buildings, including the Smithsonian Institute in Washington.’

Mrs Stoddart Gray had been outed as a fraud – one one occasion her son, who used the name De Witt C Hough, had ‘manifested’ as the deceased wife of a bereaved merchant.  The role that Thompson played in her séances appears to have been to add the gravitas of a serious professional man to the occasion.  He was described in a newspaper report at the time of her death as ‘ a man who bad been more or less identified with her ventures for years Dr Thompson Knapton.’  He appears to have had a relaxed attitude towards his name.

It was her death that brought Thompson’s name into the American press   and attracted the attention of the New York police. She was holding a séance under an assumed name of Mrs James A. Snyder in early August, 1904 when she died.  Both her son and Thompson were present at the time. The séance appears to have been a stressful occasion as the neighbours reported it ‘ was a very noisy one and that they could not sleep because of the racket in the house. It broke up in a lot of yelling and moaning.’   Mrs Stoddard Gray was in her early seventies  and appears to already have had a series of ‘attacks’ which she treated by ‘transferring the vitality of her followers.’  The death had not been formally notified and the funeral director attending her body contacted the Coroner who subsequently involved the police.  Her son explained  that  ‘Mrs Gray was a demonstrator of the philosophy and science of life commonly called a Spiritualist and like all Spiritualists she did not mind these earthly ills. She regarded these breakdowns of hers as simply psychic manifestation and not to be treated materially.  She has had such attacks for twelve years and has always been kept up by a transfer of the vitality of her followers to herself.  I have frequently treated her myself by kneeling at her bedside and gently managing the region around the heart at the same time saying soothingly “Mother you are not ill God will give you strength. Don’t you feel that He is now transferring strength to you” This method always worked until today.’ (The Evening World , 3 August. 1904)

The Coroner reported that  ‘all those present,  seemed to be in a highly wrought up condition. Especially was this the case with Mr. Knapton. He assured the Coroner that the Spiritualist séances would go on though Mrs Snyder was dead, and that she would return and tell them about the spirit world. He wanted to explain the doctrines of the cult to Coroner Scholer, despite the fact that the official told him he had little time to listen to anything save an official explanation of the woman’s death.’  Thompson (using the name Knapton and claiming to be a barrister from the Middle Temple) and the son were eventually arrested.  (New York Times, 4 August, 1904).

De Witt Hough  continued to be active as a medium, in December 1904 he is working with a partner, Mrs Conklin, in New York.  In 1907 The Moving Picture World noted cynically  ‘we paid a visit to a materialization séance by the Rev.(?) De Witt Hough  … and saw some beautiful spirits (?)  materialize to the number of fifteen, which held seventeen dollars’ works of audience spellbound.  James Knapton Thompson was still alive in 1911.  One of his sons, Alban Ruddock Thompson died in the First World War.

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Life was not always easy in the 19th century.  Here is the sad story of David Alderdice, a pawnbroker in Charlemount, Loughgall, County Armagh, as told in the local press of the time –

The Armagh Guardian September 23, 1845 Armagh, County Armagh

A FEMALE CANNIBAL.—On Thursday, Mr. DAVID ALDERDICE, a respectable pawnbroker in Charlemont, had a dispute with a woman about a forfeited pledge, whom, on account of her violent conduct, he endeavoured to eject from the shop. While in the act of so doing the infuriated tigress sprung on the old gentleman with a savage growl and seized one of his thumbs in her ruthless fangs. Poor Mr. ALDERDICE, convulsed with agony, cried loudly for assistance, but was obliged to pummel the vampire (which, for a septuagenarian, he did to admiration) with the hand that was at liberty, before he could be rescued from her blood-thirsty clutches. She was finally removed by the police, and committed by W. OLPHERTS, Esq., J.P., to Armagh gaol—a sorry consolation to Mr. ALDERDICE, who continues to labour under the terrors of lock-jaw.

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A Horrible Murder

A Horrible Murder.

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Poor Palatines in Ireland

Researching an Irish family called Switzer I came across the ‘poor Palatines.’  In 1708 the bitterly cold winter in the Rhineland, oppressive taxes and ruined vineyards drove the Lutheran people of the Palatinate to mass exodus.  Many were wncouraged to go to Britain – Queen Anne believed that German protestants would be of great political value and offered them support.  They were also seen as a valuable group to settle in the British colonies of Northern America.

Around three thousand of these refugees were dispatched to Ireland to reinforce the Protestant faith.  However, their settlement was not wholly successful and in the following years many  left Ireland for England, North America or to return to Germany.

Sir Thomas Southwell was one of the few Irish landlords who successfully managed to persuade their allotment of Palatine immigrants to remain in rural Ireland. He championed the Palatines to secure government support for the settlement venture and had helped them at considerable personal expense, being reimbursed only just before his death in 1720. In 1711, Southwell had retained only 10 families but by 1714 he had settled about 130 families on his lands, and the region around lands has still the largest concentration of Irish Palatine residents to this day in Killeheen, Ballington, and Courtmatrix.

There are a number of names in Ireland that originate in the Palatine settlers – they include Fizelle, Bethel, Binner and Switzer.  Switzer is a name associated with one of the great 19th century Dublin department stores – Switzers in Grafton Street.

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Irish Census

Ireland National  Archives have now added additional census material onto their site.  The only full surviving census for the whole of Ireland are 1901 and 1911. However Fragments survive for 1821 – 1851 for some counties namely Antrim, 1851; Belfast city (one ward only), 1851; Cavan, 1821 and 1841; Cork, 1841;Dublin city (index to heads of household only), 1851; Fermanagh, 1821, 1841 and 1851; Galway, 1813 (numerical returns for Longford barony) and 1821; King’s County (Offaly), 1821; Londonderry (Derry), 1831 – 34; Meath, 1821; Waterford, 1841.  These are now freely searchable and of real value to anyone researching their Irish families


The drop down list gives earlier dates.


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